Italy has been transformed in recent decades from a nation of emigrants to a destination country for mass immigration. Italy currently receives tens of thousands of immigrant from south-east Europe and north Africa each year. Its long coast lines and developed economy make it both an attractive destination and an easy route into Europe. As immigration rates have risen sharply, relations between the Italian and immigrant population have often been tense.
Between 1998 and 2008 the number of foreigners in Italy has tripled from 1.5 million to 4.5 million. It is estimated that this includes around 500,000 undocumented immigrants. Immigrants come from countries including: Romania, Albania, Morocco, China and Ukraine.
In 2008 alone, almost 3,000 people attempting to cross the Mediterranean landed on the Italian island of Lampedusa. Those who survive the crossing journey arrive exhausted and often in need of medical care. However, while it is true that many of migrants attempt to enter Italy via boat, the main entry route to Italy is via land or air.
This resource summary highlights a sample selection of web-based resources that focus on Italy. Links are provided to full-text documents, journal articles, external resources, and organizations.
- Andrijasevic, R. 2006. How to balance rights and responsibilities on asylum at the EU’s Southern border of Italy and Libya
- Amnesty International (Ai), 2005. Italy: temporary stay, permanent rights: the treatment of foreign nationals detained in 'temporary stay and assistance centres' (CPTAs)
- Messineo, F. 2005. Italy: Lampedusa, the island of Europe's forgotten promises
- Ecre and Contri, F, 1994. Traduction libre - Directive du President du Conseil des Ministres = unofficial translation of directive from Italian Government regarding admission of asylum seekers & displaced persons from former Yugoslavia
- Zincone, G. 1993. Immigration to Italy: data and policies
- Zincone, G. 1993. Immigration policies in Italy
- Tonini, A. 1999. International donors, the refugees and UNRWA: France, Britain and Italy as case studies, 1950-1993
- Barsotti, O. and Di Comite, L. 1993. Foreign immigration into Italy with particular reference to immigration from Maghreb : the impact on the local labour markets.
- Polosa, A. 1987. Economic immigrants, refugees and asylum-seekers in Italy: some juridical and institutional aspects.
- Birindelli, A.M. and Rosoli, G. 1984. Illegal migration and national economies: the case of Italy
- Zetter, R. Sigona, N. Griffiths, D. 2002. 'A Survey of Policy and Practice Related to Refugee Integration in the EU'. Final Report to ERF. (Contains a chapter on Italy)
- Zohry, A. 2009. The Migratory Patterns of Egyptians in Italy and France
- Gallo, E. 2003. Unorthodox Sisters: Gender Relations and Transnational Marriages among Malayali Migrants in Italy
- King, R. and Vullnetari, J. 2003. Migration and Development in Albania
- Sabates-Wheeler, R. and Natalie, C. and Black, R. 2007. Migration, legal status and poverty: evidence from return to Ghana
- Germenji, E. and Gedeshi, I. 2008. Highly skilled migration from Albania: an assessment of current trends and the ways ahead
Selected web-based information resources (for more, search the FMO website)
- UNHCR, Country Profile - Italy
- Centro Studi Emigrazione. CSER holds one of the most comprehensive libraries on migration in Italy, it also publishes a journal gives accessto other relevant resources. (Available in English, French and Italian)
- Dossier Statistico Immigrazione (IDOS) The 'Statistical Dossier on Immigration' collects data on immigration, placing it in its national, regional and local context.
- Mondi Migranti (journal) Italian Review of Sociology of Migration
- Sigona, N. 2003. 'How can a 'nomad' be a 'refugee'?' Sociology, Vol. 37, No. 1
Contact details for organizations based in Italy (for more, search in the Organizations Directory)
- UNHCR Italia
- SPRAR - Servizio Centrale del Sistema di Protezione per Richiedenti Asilo e Rifugiati
- Centro Astalli - Servizio dei Gesuiti per i Rifugiati in Italia (Jesuit Refugee Service - Italy)
- Consiglio Italiano per i Rifugiati (CIR) (Italian Council for Refugees)
- Consorzio Italiano di Solidarietà (ICS) ( Italian Consortium of Solidarity)
- Associazioni Studi Giuridici sull'Immigrazione (ASGI)
- Caritas Italiana