Forced Migration in Ethiopia is classified in three categories: internally displaced persons (IDPs), refugees in Ethiopia, and trafficking.
Conflict-induced displacement is the most significant form of internal displacement in Ethiopia. The Ethio-Eritrean war, which erupted in May 1998, accounted for the largest number of displaced people since the current government came to power in 1991. Over 350,000 people were displaced at the start of the war from areas along the common border of the Tigray and Afar regions. An additional 95,000 Ethiopians were deported from Eritrea, and as the conflict escalated, people residing close to the borderlines were evacuated.
Drought-induced and famine-induced displacements are chronic problems in Ethiopia and development-induced displacement occurs due to road construction.
Relevant issues concerning IDPs include the presence of landmines, HIV/AIDS, and problems of the families of deceased soldiers.
Refugees in Ethiopia - principally Somalis, Sudanese, and Eritreans – often arrive as a result of ongoing political and civil unrest in the Horn of Africa as well as natural disasters (mostly drought).
Trafficking, particularly of women and young girls, is another significant form of forced migration in Ethiopia.
This resource summary highlights a sample selection of web-based resources available on FMO that focus on Ethiopia and Ethiopian people, with particular regard to the issue of forced migration.
Links are provided to full-text documents, journal articles, web resources, and organizations.
- Dessalegn, Bezaiet. " FMO research guide: Ethiopia" (August 2004)
- Also see the “Emergencies and Humanitarian Assistance” resource page.
Selected full-text documents (for more, search in the Digital Library)
- Ayenew, Meheret [editor]. 2002. “Poverty and poverty policy in Ethiopia.”
- Clapham, Christopher. 1991. “The Structure of Regional Conflict in Northern Ethiopia.” Disasters 15(3): 244-253.
- Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART). 2003. “Ethiopia: disaster assistance response team - response plan”
- Falge, Christiana. 1997. “The Nuer as refugees: a study on social adaptation.”
- Kebede, Kassahun. 2001. “Re-relocation and dislocation of communities by 'development' projects: the case of Gilgel Gibe dam (1962-2000) in Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia”
- Kloos, Helmut. 1992. “Health Impacts of War in Ethiopia.” Disasters 16(4): 347-354.
- Kloos, Helmut and Bernt Lindtjorn. 1994. “Malnutrition and Mortality During Recent Famines in Ethiopia: Implications for Food Aid and Rehabilitation.” Disasters 18(2): 130-139.
- Lautze, Sue. et al. 2003. “Risk and vulnerability in Ethiopia: learning from the past, responding to the present, preparing for the future.”
- Rahmato, Dessalegn. 2001. “Environmental change and state policy in Ethiopia: lessons from past experience.”
- Tesema, Ephrem. 1998. “Urban adaptation and survival strategies: the case of displaced groups in Arada area Addis Ababa.”
Selected web-based information resources (for more, search the FMO website)
- Agreement between the government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the government of the State of Eritrea. UNHCR
- Articles, The Sidama Concern
- Early warning. Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission
- Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (Permanent Court of Arbitration) (also in French). Permanent Court of Arbitration
- Ethiopia: famine food field guide. United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – Ethiopia and University of Pennsylvania, African Studies Center
- Ethiopian Village Studies - Department of Sociology, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia and the Centre for the Study of African Economies, Oxford, UK
- Reports. United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – Ethiopia
Contact details for organizations based in Ethiopia (for more, search in the Organizations Directory)
- African Union (AU)
- Christian Relief and Development Association (CRDA), Ethiopia
- Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission (DPPC), Ethiopian Government
- Ethiopia AIDS Resource Center
- Ethiopian Community in Britain
- Ethiopian Human Rights Council (EHRCO)
- Ethiopian Refugee Community in Lambeth
- Ethiopian Rural Self Help Association (ERSHA)
- Medrek - Forum for Social Studies
- Relief Society of Tigray (REST)
- Solidarity Committee for Ethiopian Political Prisoners
- United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA)
- United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in Ethiopia (UN OCHA-Ethiopia)
- United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)
- World Vision Ethiopia (WVE)