The Republic of Angola is on the west coast of south-central Africa, and has an estimated population of around 13 million people. Wealthy in natural resources, it is now one of the fastest growing economies in Africa, fuelled mainly by its oil production. Despite this apparent wealth however, the country faces enormous socio-economic problems produced by the 27-year long civil war and the preceding fight for independence from Portugal, achieved in 1975.
In terms of forced migration, it is conflict-induced displacement that has received the most attention during the four decades of near constant fighting. At the height of the civil war, which raged from 1975 to 2002 between the governing MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola) and UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola), it is estimated that over 4 million people were displaced. Since the relative return to peace in 2002 however, the government and international observers have indicated that the vast majority of the displaced in Angola have either returned, resettled or integrated; and from 2005 displacement and return was no longer being monitored (IDMC, 2008).
Attention has turned to the reconstruction of the country’s infrastructure as people return. Issues related to forced migration include: the return process for the displaced, and their varying success in finding durable solutions; post-conflict issues, such as landmines in areas of resettlement, and the reintegration of combatants into society, including child soldiers; disaster-induced displacement, with communities in various parts of the country affected by serious flooding; and the challenges posed by the influx of irregular migrants into the country.
This resource summary highlights a sample selection of web-based resources available on FMO that focus on Angola, specifically on issues relating on forced migration. Links are provided to full-text documents, articles, web resources and relevant organizations.
- Eyber, C. “FMO research guide: Angola” (April 2005)
- Bradley, M. “FMO research guide: Return of forced migrants” (April 2006)
- Torres, A B. “FMO research guide: Armed conflict, peace processes and forced migrants” (June 2005)
Selected full-text documents (for more search in the FMO Digital Library)
- Foley, C. 2007. “Land rights in Angola: poverty and plenty”
- Strategic Humanitarian Action and Research (SHARE). 2003. “Strengthening the UN-Angolan partnership to help Angola’s displaced and war-affected”
- International Crisis Group (ICG). 2003. “Dealing with Savimbi’s ghost: the security and humanitarian challenges in Angola"
- International Crisis Group (ICG). 2003. “Angola’s choice: reform or regress”
- de Mul, E. 2003. “Angola: consolidating peace through relief and development”
- Prendergast, J. and Bowers, J. 2003. “Angola’s second chance”
- Carvalho, K. 2003. “IDP protection in Angola: has momentum been lost?” (FMR 2003, No. 16)
- Beatty, M. Jones, R K. and McGinn, T. 2001. “Assessment of reproductive health for IDPs”
- Amnesty International (AI). 1998. “Angola: extrajudicial executions and torture in Cabinda”
- Ball, N. and Campbell, K F.1998.“Complex crisis and complex peace: humanitarian coordination in Angola”
- Smock, D. and Predergast, J. 1996. “NGOs and the peace process in Angola”
- Belik, H. 1992. “Social class and ethnic identity in contemporary Angola”
- Hansen, A. 1990. “Refugee self-settlement versus settlement on government schemes: the long-term consequences for security, integration and economic development of Angolan refugees (1966-1989) in Zambia”
- Oxfam. 2008. “Diamonds and roses”
Selected web-based information resources (for more, search the FMO website)
- Porto, J.G. Alden, C. Parsons, I. 2003. "Sustaining the peace in Angola: an overview of current demobilisation, disarmament and reintegration".
- Human Rights Watch. 2002. "The War is Over: The Crisis of Angola’s Internally Displaced Continues"
- Human Rights Watch. 2005. "Coming home: Return and reintegration in Angola"
- United States Institute of Peace (USIP). "Angola Peace Agreements" A digital collection including full texts of several peace agreements and protocols.
- Discussion list: AfricaLuso Discussion on the five countries of Lusophone Africa - Angola, Cape Verde, Guine-Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe and Mozambique.
- Human Rights Watch. Other publications on Angola
- UNHCR Refworld. Publications on Angola
- International Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC). Country page: Angola
- UNHCR. 2010 country operations profile: Angola
- ReliefWeb. Country profile and latest updates: Angola
- International Organization for Migration (IOM). Angola: Facts and Figures
- IRIN. Latest news and features on Angola
Contact details for organizations based in Angola (for more, search in the Organizations Directory)