International guidelines and resources to tackle HIV/AIDS in conflict situations
The most recent and comprehensive guidelines available are the updated 2003 ‘Guidelines for HIV Interventions in Emergency Settings’ produced by the Inter Agency Standing Committee, which is a consortium of UN agencies, the Red Cross, and governmental and non-governmental agencies ( http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/iasc/publications.asp). The guidelines provide a list of recommended multi-sectoral activities to be conducted in three phases (emergency preparedness; during an emergency; and the stabilized phase).
UNAIDS, the joint UN programme on HIV/AIDS, is the key UN body concerned with HIV/AIDS, and coordinates the HIV/AIDS-related activities of other UN agencies such as WHO, UNICEF, UNHCR, UNDP, and UNFPA. The UNAIDS website ( http://www.unaids.org/en/default.asp) is the key source for excellent information on HIV/AIDS, including for forced migration. They have produced a wide-range of useful guidelines, fact sheets, and other documents on subjects relating to HIV/AIDS and forced migration. These can found at http://www.unaids.org/en/in+focus/topic+areas.asp.
UNHCR have a number of useful HIV/AIDS guidelines, reports, and materials which can be best accessed through http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home?page=PROTECT&id=401915744.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent societies also provide some information on HIV/AIDS services ( http://www.ifrc.org/what/health/hivaids/index.asp) and are in the process of developing best practice guidelines for NGOs providing HIV/AIDS services in humanitarian crisis situations (see http://www.ifrc.org/what/health/hivaids/code/).
The leading set of guidelines on reproductive health for displaced persons is the ‘Interagency Field Manual for Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations’ (see http://www.unfpa.org/emergencies/manual/) produced by a consortium of UN agencies and NGOs. This includes details on the provision of a Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) for reproductive health in refugee situations. WHO have also produced ‘Reproductive Health during Conflict and Displacement’, which complements the Interagency Field Manual and focuses particularly on the vulnerability of women and young people to sexual violence ( http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/RHR_00_13_RH_conflict_and_displacement/). NGO guidelines include ones developed by IRC, Médécins Sans Frontières, and the Women’s Commission. Please see below for web links.
A number of ethical codes of conduct for agencies providing humanitarian relief have also been developed since the early 1990s. These include the ‘Code of Conduct’ produced by the Red Cross movement and a number of NGOs, which seeks to safeguard high standards of behaviour by humanitarian agencies and to maintain the independence and effectiveness of disaster relief ( http://www.ifrc.org/what/values/). A second code of conduct was developed in the form of the Sphere project to try to improve accountability among aid agencies ( http://www.sphereproject.org). Its first objective is to assist the international humanitarian community in developing a common framework for humanitarian action. Known as the ‘Humanitarian Charter’, the framework is based on key principles in international human rights and humanitarian law, and on the Red Cross/Red Crescent Code of Conduct. The second objective of the Sphere project is to outline minimum technical standards for humanitarian interventions ( Griekspoor and Collins 2001 ).
Please see the ‘Other Resources’ section for links to other resources on the web.
- Guidelines on the web:
- IFRC, (general HIV/AIDS) - http://www.ifrc.org/what/health/hivaids/index.asp
- Inter Agency Standing Committee (IASC), ‘Guidelines for HIV Interventions in Emergency Settings’, 2003. http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/iasc/publications.asp
- Inter Agency Working Group, Interagency Field Manual for Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations, 1999 - http://www.unfpa.org/emergencies/manual/
- International Centre for Migration and Health, ‘Reproductive Health in the Context of Forced Migration’ - http://www.icmh.ch/WebPDF/2001 per cent20- per cent20UNFPA per cent20- per cent20Reproductive per cent20Health per cent20- per cent20Report.pdf
- International Humanitarian Forum on War and Accountability - http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/iwpList2/Focus:Accountability
- IRC, ‘Protecting the Future. HIV Prevention, Care and Support among Displaced and War-Affected Populations’, 2003 - http://intranet.theirc.org/docs/Protecting_the_future.pdf
- Johns Snow International Inc. (technical information on HIV/AIDS) - http://www.jsi.com/
- Médecins Sans Frontières (various) - http://www.msf.org/source/refbooks/index.htm
- Sphere project, ‘Sphere Project Handbook’, 2004 - http://www.sphereproject.org
- UNAIDS - http://www.unaids.org/en/default.asp
- UNAIDS (key themes) - http://www.unaids.org/en/in+focus/topic+areas.asp
- UNHCR (AIDS general) - http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/protect/+8wwFqz6XWKW9s66xFqz6XWKW9s66hFqhT0NuItFqrpGdBnqBzFqmRbZAFqwDzmwwwwwwww1FqmRbZ
- Women’s Commission for Refugees, Women and Children, ‘Protecting Children in Armed Conflict: Blueprints for Compliance’ - http://www.womenscommission.org/reports/index.html#guidelines
- Women’s Commission for Refugees, Women and Children, Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women. See http://www.womenscommission.org/reports/index.html#guidelines
- Women’s Commission for Refugees, Women and Children, ‘Refugees and AIDS: What should the Humanitarian Community do?’ - http://www.womenscommission.org/reports/index.html#guidelines
- WHO (general information and guidelines) - http://www.who.int/disasters/tg.cfm?doctypeID=25
- WHO, Reproductive Health During Conflict and Displacement: A Guide for Programme Managers, 2000 - http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications
- WHO, ‘Reproductive Health during Conflict and Displacement’, http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/RHR_00_13_RH_conflict_and_displacement/