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Ethiopia

Bezaiet Dessalegn

August 2004

Basic Information

Basic Information

Formal name: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE)

Capital: Addis Ababa

Estimated population: 69,127,000 ( Statistical Abstract 2002 )

Map

CIA World Fact Book

Summary

Summary

Forced Migration in Ethiopia is classified in three categories: internally displaced persons (IDPs), refugees in Ethiopia, and trafficking, particularly of women and young girls. Internal displacement has in turn been explained in three categories, namely conflict-induced, disaster-induced, and development-induced displacement. Conflict-induced displacement is the most prominent of these, as it has resulted in the displacement of a large number of people within a short period of time. It is also the area with the greatest concentration of humanitarian assistance, and as such has been given more coverage in this research guide.

The Ethio-Eritrean war, which erupted in May 1998, accounted for the largest number of displaced people since the current government came to power in 1991. Right after the commencement of the war, over 350,000 people were displaced from areas along the common border of the Tigray and Afar regions. An additional 95,000 Ethiopians were deported from Eritrea, and as the conflict escalated, people residing close to the borderlines and within a range of possible shelling were evacuated, increasing the total number of IDPs in the area.

Numerous organizations—government agencies, international and local NGOs, and multilaterals—were involved in responding to the needs of the displaced. For the purpose of this guide, emphasis has been given to programs and issues that have had greater coverage and are deemed more relevant. With this respect, the World Bank-funded Emergency Recovery Program (ERP), and the United States Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Border Development Program (BDP), which are by far the largest, have been highlighted. However, a list of organizations working with IDPs and the types of assistance they provide is included in the guide to furnish researchers with added information on organizations involved in post-war rehabilitation programs. Relevant issues concerning IDPs such as the presence of landmines, HIV/AIDS, and problems of the families of deceased soldiers are also covered.

Disaster-induced displacement in Ethiopia is mainly attributed to drought and can in most cases be characterized as stress migration or temporary displacement. Drought- and famine-induced displacements are chronic problems in Ethiopia. While large-scale development-induced displacements are rare, the most common form of development-induced displacement in Ethiopia is due to road construction. Information on such forms of displacement is limited for political and other reasons.

Refugee influxes in Ethiopia are largely the result of ongoing political and civil unrest in the Horn of Africa as well as natural disasters (mostly drought) in neighbouring countries. Refugees in Ethiopia mainly consist of Somalis, Sudanese, and Eritreans. Trafficking in Ethiopia mostly takes the form of transporting migrants by fraud, deception, and different forms of coercion. Increasing levels of unemployment in the country, coupled with increased demand for cheap labor in developed countries, has resulted in an increased number of migrant workers leaving the country. Many young girls have become victims of trafficking by illegal agents who claim to have established contacts with employers, mainly in the Middle East.

Overview

Overview

Geography, ethnicity, and culture

Ethiopia is a land-locked country located in East Africa. It shares boundaries with Sudan in the west, Kenya in the south, Eritrea in the north, and Somalia in the east. It is the third largest country in the continent, covering a total of 1,127 square kilometres. Ethiopia is endowed with diverse topography ranging from the highland mountains (the highest being Ras Dejen at 4,620 m above sea level) to the Dankil Depression, the lowest point in the world (125 m below sea level). The highland massif, which begins in northern Eritrea, runs all the way to southern Ethiopia, with an eastern extension forming the Arsi, Bale and Harar Plateaus. The lowlands, which also begin in the northeastern part of the country, extend southwards to include the Dankil Depression, the lower Awash valley up to the Ogaden and the lower parts of Harar in the East as well as Bale and Sidamo in the south. The Great Rift Valley roughly bisects the country and has led to the formation of a number of crater lakes. Lakes and rivers are widespread throughout the country. There are twelve major lakes, Lake Tana being the longest (70 km), widest (60 km), and largest, covering a vast area of 3,600 square kilometres ( Statistical Abstract 2002 ). Lake Tana is also known as the source of the Blue Nile, which joins the White Nile originating in Uganda and flows all the way up to Egypt. The eastern and southeastern parts of the country are characterized by a semi-arid climate and are home to the Ethiopian pastoralist and semi-pastoralists. The climate in the country is mostly characterized as tropical monsoon with wide variation in accordance with the diverse topography.

With a population of 69,127,000 ( Statistical Abstract 2002 ), Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ethiopia represents a range of diverse people who live together, speaking a multitude of different tongues, practicing different religions and customs. There are more than 78 ethnic groups in Ethiopia, with 69 per cent of them found in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP) region. According to the 1994 census, ethnic representation in the country can be roughly categorized as 32 per cent Oromo, 30 per cent Amhara, 6 per cent Tigray, 6 per cent Somali, 4 per cent Guragie, 3 per cent Sidama, 2 per cent Wolaita, 2 per cent Afar, 2 per cent Hadiya, and 1 per cent Gamo. The remainder are from one of the countries other ethnic groups.

There are over 80 languages in Ethiopia, with more than 200 dialects spoken throughout the country. The official language is Amharic. Other widely spoken languages include Afarigna, Oromiffa, Tigrigna, Somaligna, Sidamgna, Wolaitigna, and Hadiyigna. The many languages can be broken down into four main groups: Semitic, Hamitic, Omotic, and Nilo-Saharan. The Semitic languages are related to both Hebrew and Arabic. They are mostly spoken in the northern and central parts of the country. The principal Semitic language is Amharic. The Hamitic languages are found mainly in the east, west, and south. Of this group, Oromiffa is the predominant language. The Omotic group of languages is spoken in the south-west and has been given that name in recent years because it is spoken in the general area of the Omo River. The Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken in a wide area along the Sudan frontier. Some of the written languages use the Ge'ez alphabet, the language of the of the ancient Axumite kingdom. Ge'ez is the only indigenous written language in all of Africa. Other written languages in Ethiopia mainly use the Latin alphabet. English is the predominant foreign language, though French and Italian are also spoken, especially in business and academic circles.

The predominant religions of Ethiopia are Ethiopian Orthodox (Monophysite) Christianity and Islam. Christianity was introduced in the fourth century AD during the reign of King Ezana and is more common in the northern and central parts of Ethiopia, where Judaism and Islam are also found. Islam is more dominant in the eastern and southern parts of the country. Other religions that are practiced include Animism and other denominations of Christianity (Catholic, Pentecostal, etc.). Animism is found mainly in southern regions of Ethiopia.

Ethiopia uses the Julian Solar calendar, which is made up of twelve equal months of thirty days each and a thirteenth month consisting of five or six days, depending on the year. Following this unique calendar, holidays in Ethiopia fall on different dates than normally celebrated in the Western world.

Historical background

As stated in many historical records and reflected in ancient architecture such as the rock-hewn churches at Lalibella, the stone obelisks at Axum, and the former imperial palace of Fasiledes in Gondar, Ethiopia has a rich history that dates back 3,000 years. As such it is said to be a cradle of primeval civilization.

Apart from its five-year occupation by the Italians (1936–41), Ethiopia is known as the only country in Africa that was never colonized and is referred to by many as the ‘Pride of Africa’. Until late 1974 when the Derg government took power in a coup d’etat, Ethiopia was administered through a succession of emperors, the last one being Emperor Haile Selassie (also commonly referred to by the Jamaican Rastafarian community as Ras Teferi).

Ethiopia is also known as one of the world’s richest sources of fossils, providing data on the course and timing of human evolution over the past 4 million years of geological time. There are large areas containing deposits, which range from approximately 1 million to 4 million years old. It is the place where ‘Lucy’, the hominid skeleton dating back 3.18 million years, was found. In June 2003, archeologists found Homo Sapiens skulls in the Herto village of the Afar Region that is estimated to be between 154,000 to 160,000 years old. The remains have been named ‘Edaltu’, meaning ‘grandfather’ in the Afar language.

Politics

The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE), which came into existence in May 1991, has a parliamentarian form of government and comprises nine regional states (Afar, Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambella, Harar, Oromiya, Somali, Tigray, and SNNP) and two administrative cities (Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa). The federal government resides in the capital city of Addis Ababa, administratively known as Region 14. Addis Ababa is also the economic center of the country and hosts a number of headquarters of international organizations (see Major organizations in Ethiopia ).

The federal and regional government has legislative, executive, and judicial powers. The House of People's Representatives is the highest authority of the federal government and is answerable to the people nationally. The State Council is the highest organ of state authority and is responsible to the people of in that particular state. There are two houses in the government - the House of People's Representatives and House of the Federation. Members of the House of People's Representatives are elected by the people for a term of five years. The political party or coalition of political parties that have the greatest number of seats in the House of People's Representatives form and lead the Executive. The House of the Federation is composed of representatives of nations, nationalities, and peoples. Members of the House of the Federation are elected by the State Council. The State Council either elects representatives to the House of the Federation, or holds elections to have them elected directly by the people.

The president of the FDRE is the head of state, and is nominated by the House of People’s Representatives. Election is, however, decided jointly by the House of People's Representatives and the House of the Federation. The term of office of the president is six years; no person can be elected president for more than two terms. The current president is Ato Girma Wolde Giorgis. The highest executive powers of the federal government are vested in the Prime Minister and in the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister is the chief executive, the chairman of the Council of Ministers, and the commander-in-chief of the national armed forces. The current Prime Minister is Ato Meles Zenawi.

Economy

According to the Second Annual Report on the Ethiopian Economy ( 2000/2001 ), it is estimated that close to 30 million Ethiopians live in absolute poverty, failing to satisfy their basic needs on a day-to-day basis. Ethiopia’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita is US$100, with an average GDP growth per capita of 2.8 per cent. Looking at sectoral contributions to the overall GDP, 52 per cent is derived from the agricultural sector, 11.1 per cent from the industrial sector, 7 per cent from the manufacturing sector, and 36.5 per cent from the service sector.

Agriculture is the dominant sector, with over 85 per cent of the population depending on it. The export market is highly dependent on the sale of coffee, Chat ( Catha edulis, a stimulant leaf), and animal hides. Fluctuations in international prices, as well as changes in weather patterns, thus easily equate to economic depression. Other problems in the country include high reliance on subsistence rain-fed agriculture, increased population pressure, increasing degradation of natural resources, lack of foreign investment, and increased debt. Consecutive droughts coupled with underlying structural problems in the country have resulted in massive starvation.

The majority of the country’s income is derived from loans from the World Bank as well as bilateral loans. Ethiopia was the twenty-fourth country to reach the Decision Point for debt relief (in November 2001) under the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Total debt service relief is estimated to be around US$1.9 billion over time (US$1.3 million on Net Present Value terms). The full amount of debt relief from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), International Development Association (IDA), and other creditors will be delivered to Ethiopia following the completion of a number of measures in key areas recommended by the boards of the World Bank and IMF.

Health

According to the 2000 Central Statistical Authority’s (CSA) Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), Ethiopia has one of the highest mortality rates in the world. It is estimated that one in every six Ethiopian children will die before reaching the age of five, with 58 per cent of these deaths occurring during the first year of life. There is also a very high level of malnutrition in the country. One in two Ethiopian children under five years of age is stunted (short for their age), 11 per cent wasted (thin for their age), and 47 per cent underweight.

The government owns and operates most hospitals in the country. However, the number of private hospitals, higher clinics, and other health facilities is increasing. Lack of doctors, medical equipment, and medicine are major drawbacks in the country’s health system. According to the Ministry of Health’s data (in 2001), the doctor-to-patient ratio in Ethiopia stands at 1 to 36,000, with only 51.6 per cent of the population having access to health care.

HIV/AIDS has now become a major threat in the country. Ethiopia has the third largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. As per the Ministry of Health (in 2002), an estimated 2.2 million people live with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia, including 200,000 children. This has contributed to falling life expectancy over the past decade (in 2001, life expectancy was 42 years, compared to 45 years in 1990).

Lack of access to clean water is another major contributing factor to Ethiopia’s health problems. According to the CSA DHS survey, only 10 per cent of the households in Ethiopia have access to clean water.

Education

A century has passed since modern education began in Ethiopia. Under the imperial regime, literacy rate was reported at a mere 10 per cent. This figure then increased to about 63 per cent in 1984, and was reported at 61 per cent in 1990–91. The increase was mainly due to a national literacy campaign adopted by the Derg regime which mobilized more than 60,000 students and teachers to teach all over the country for a two-year term; however, the rate quickly dropped as soon as the campaign was phased out ( Second Annual Report on the Ethiopian Economy 2000/2001 ). Looking at enrollment ratios at various levels of education, there is great disparity between the relatively developed and undeveloped regions.

Enrolment of girls at every level of education is lower than that of boys. Enrolment of girls in elementary, secondary, and higher-education level is 41, 38, and 31 per cent respectively ( Statistical Abstract 2002 ). Adult literacy rate in the country is estimated at 28.9 per cent while female and male literacy rates stand at 18.5 per cent and 39.6 per cent respectively. Many regions are now providing primary education in their local/native languages. English is the medium of instruction in secondary and higher institutions as it is taught as a subject beginning from grade one.

According to the Education Sector Development Strategy, a new educational structure has been laid out wherein primary education would include grades one to eight and secondary education would include grades nine to twelve. However, secondary education has been divided into two cycles. The first cycle, representing grades nine and ten, involves general secondary education while the second cycle, representing grades ten to twelve, involves special training preparing students for higher education (diploma or degree programs). For those who may not continue formal education, technical and vocational training opportunities in agriculture, industrial arts, construction, commerce, and home science are available after primary education. Public schools are mainly free, charging only nominal fees to cover costs of services such as the provision of books and registration ( Second Annual Report on the Ethiopian Economy 2000/2001 ).

Currently there are nineteen public higher education institutions in Ethiopia including six universities (Addis Ababa, Alemaya, Jimma, Bahir Dar, Mekelle, and Debub) and thirteen colleges of medicine, agriculture, commerce, technical, engineering, forestry, and teacher education ( Second Annual Report on the Ethiopian Economy 2000/2001 ). There are also a number of privately owned and accredited colleges that offer diploma- and degree-level education. As per the new strategy, higher education, which used to be free, will start having tuition fees as well as accommodation costs on a credit basis (differed cost recovery), the payment of which will begin following a one year grace period after graduation.

Internally displaced persons (IDPs)

Internally displaced persons (IDPs)

Conflict-induced displacement

Following the Ethio-Eritrean war, which erupted in May 1998, over 350,000 people were internally displaced from areas along the common border of the Tigray and Afar regions. The majority of displacement in these regions occurred in eight woredas (similar to US or British counties) of Tigray and seven woredas of Afar. The bulk of displacement occurred before the end of June 1998, during which time approximately 143,000 Ethiopians were displaced from areas close to the border ( UN Country Team 1999 ). As the conflict escalated, more people were forced to leave their homes. The government also evacuated civilians living within range of possible shelling. By the end of the year, the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (GFDRE) reported that the number of displaced had reached 350,000. This number had more or less remained the same until the last round of fighting in May–June 2000 when the GFDRE reported the displacement of an additional 15,000 people.

In addition to the displaced, others were deported from Eritrea. Although most of the displaced were integrated into nearby communities, some were settled in makeshift camps and caves. The Ethio-Eritrean war was notable in that not many civilians were actually caught in the fighting. However, it did result in the loss of lives of many soldiers, major psychological trauma for those remaining, and damage to existing infrastructure such as schools, health facilities, major water and power supply systems, and other public service-giving institutions.

In 1998, the Organization of African Unity (OAU)

Now known as the African Union (AU).

proposed an eleven-point framework agreement to settle the war, which was accepted by Ethiopia and rejected by Eritrea. This was later adjusted and presented as the August 1999 modalities, which were accepted by Eritrea and rejected by Ethiopia. Cessation of hostilities between the two countries was signed in June 2000, and a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in Algiers in December 2000 ( Global IDP Project 2003 ). Following the CPA, close to 80 per cent of the IDPs began returning to their homes. The remaining 20 per cent (mostly those from Gulomekeda woreda) were unable to return either due to the presence of landmines or because their homes were in areas that were contested by the two countries. Initially, the number of causalities caused by Unexploded Ordnance (UXO), or mines, was very high. The majority of victims were children herding cattle and domestic animals. However, there were also some reports of farmers who were injured or died as a result of farming on un-cleared mine fields.

In addition to landmines, the IDPs faced problems related to shortages of shelter, agricultural inputs, household utensils, health services, water sources, and education facilities, as well as to HIV/AIDS. The problems were further aggravated with the destruction of household and productive assets as well as many socio-economic structures. Interruption of economic relations between Ethiopia and Eritrea also affected and continues to negatively impact the lives of many, especially those living in border towns such as Zalambessa, Adigrat, Rama, and Humera. The border closure has interrupted cross-border trade of grain and livestock, which had helped in stabilizing prices in times of scarcity. Livestock sales were especially important sources of income for middle- and upper-income households. Labor migration to and from Ethiopia had also traditionally served as an income-generation opportunity, especially for poor households on both sides of the border ( Hammond 2001 ). In an effort to compensate for lost income-generating opportunities, and fostered by the presence soldiers in the area, prostitution has become a major source of earnings for many young women. The spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases in these areas has thus increased immensely.

The Tigray region, the closest and most populated region along the border, was inundated with over 300,000 IDPs and 77,000 returnees/deportees from Eritrea. The region also had to assist close to 40,000 families (about 144,000 family members) of the deceased as well as the demobilization and reintegration of about 150,000 able and disabled soldiers. The numerous effects of the war, coupled with existing chronic food security problems in the area, had left the region ill-equipped to effectively respond to the needs of the various groups affected.

International response to displacement and conflict

Subsequent to the signing of the peace agreement, a number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and UN agencies including the World Bank, began to actively engage in addressing the needs of the war-affected population. The World Bank’s Emergency Recovery Program (ERP), by far the largest, is valued at US$230 million financed through a ‘soft’ loan made to the Ethiopian Government. Other major programs include the Border Development Program funded by USAID, along with standard food aid distribution by the World Food Programme (WFP) and Relief Society of Tigray (REST). The overall rehabilitation program also includes assistance to Eritrean refugees predominantly from Kunama. Generally speaking, the rehabilitation programs have been geographically concentrated in the eastern part of the Tigray region, with particular focus on Erob and Gulomekeda, which have been highly affected by the border conflict both in terms of population and in damaged/destroyed infrastructure. This has resulted in a certain amount of duplication of efforts. Please refer to Table 1 for a list of organizations involved in rehabilitation programs for war-affected populations. Many reconstruction programs are currently on hold awaiting the final demarcation of the ruling of the Border Commission.

Table 1: List of agencies involved in ERP
Programs Agencies involved
Health WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, COOPI, CRS, ICRC/ERCS, REST
Nutrition INICEF, WFP
HIV/AIDS WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, REST
Water supply UNICEF, UNDP, CRS, ADCS, ICRC/ERCS, REST
Environmental sanitation UNICEF, CRS
Food WFP, CRS
Education UNICEF, COOPI
Agricultural inputs FAO, REST, COOPI
Shelter/Housing UNICEF, ICRC, COOPI, REST, VOCA
Women and children’s protection UNICEF
Mine action/Awareness UNICEF, UNDP, WHO, RaDO, REST, UNMEE
Reintegration UNHCR, ICRC, WFP, IOM
Roads ILO
Capacity-building UNDP, UNICEF, WHO, FAO, WFP, UNHCR, ILO, UNFPA, ICRC, CRS
Income-generation COOPI, REST, VOCA
Emergency Recovery Program (ERP)

The ERP targets war-affected people including IDPs, families of the deceased (FDs)—families who lost their primary breadwinners, deportees/returnees, and demobilized soldiers. The program is implemented through the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MoFED) and is well complemented by other post-war recovery and rehabilitation programs undertaken by various agencies. At the regional level, the Regional Emergency Program Management Unit (REPMU) undertakes management and coordination of the program. REPMU works in close collaboration with the Office for Rehabilitation and Social Affairs, which is in charge of coordinating the post war rehabilitation efforts in the region.

The ERP has five major components, namely:

Household rehabilitation of IDPs, FDs, and deportees/returnees

Rebuilding community socio-economic infrastructures

HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support

De-mining

Road rehabilitation.

The ERP became effective in February 2001 and was originally expected to end in February 2002. However, reconsidering the timeframe required to accomplish planned activities, the end date has now been postponed to December 2005. The first phase of the program mainly focused on meeting the needs of IDPs and FDs through agricultural rehabilitation, house construction, and the provision of basic household goods and income-generation packages (house construction was excluded from services provided to FDs). However, deportees received minimal assistance during the second phase. The third phase is expected to be all-inclusive, addressing the needs of IDPs, FDs, and deportees.

The Household Rehabilitation Project, being the largest of the five components of the ERP, targets 63,000 IDP households, or approximately 360,000 IDPs (90 per cent of whom come from the Tigray region and the rest from the Afar region). Based on a household assessment, eligible beneficiaries are given cash and industrial materials to reconstruct damaged or destroyed houses. Additional cash is also provided for the purchase of essential household utensils and agricultural inputs, as seed money for income generation.

According to the ERP implementation manual, ‘About 36,000 civilian and militias who were breadwinners for their families have lost their lives. The deceased were supporting about 144,000 family members’ ( UN Country Team 1999 ). From notification of the death of a militia member to identification of eligible beneficiaries of the program and provision of compensation payments, various levels of government offices are involved. Compensation payments mainly depend on family sizes. The ERP has made available over US$2 million for its rehabilitation program, targeting over 12,000 households. In addition, well over US$10 million has been paid to FDs towards agricultural and non-agricultural income-generation activities.

Since the beginning of the war, nationals of both countries have been forced to go back to their place of origin. Between May 1998 and August 2001, close to 95,000 Ethiopian nationals who were living in Eritrea returned to Ethiopia, the majority of which (over 70 per cent) were from the Tigray region. The deportees were initially registered by the Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission/Bureau and were provided, as part of the ERP program, a one-time assistance package, which included food rations for nine months and a grant of Birr 1,000 to 1,500 per head of household ( Birr is the Ethiopian currency; US$1 is approximately equal to Birr 8.60). This, however, has not been sufficient, as they have little opportunity to supplement it with additional income.

Although local government authorities encourage returnees to move into rural areas, most have ended up settling in urban centres, considerably increasing the urban population and making the recovery process more difficult. Existing social infrastructure such as schools and health stations have been stretched in attempts to accommodate the augmented population. As a result, urban poverty has increased tremendously. This, coupled with increased competition for off-farm employment opportunities, has placed returnees in a frustrating situation. Such problems are more evident in the towns of Adwa, Adigrat and Mekelle. For instance, in the town of Adigrat, the population of about 50,000 has increased by approximately 37,000 deportees/returnees in addition to its 10,000 IDPs ( Proceedings of the Review Workshop on the Tigray Emergency Recovery Program 2002 )—the town’s population has almost doubled. The inability to become economically self-sufficient has led to an increase in prostitution, especially in areas of high military presence. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in these areas is reported to be very high.

The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), in close collaboration with the Tigray Women’s Affairs Office and other regional counterparts ( Buffoni and Tadesse 2001 ) conducted a study focusing on the needs and specific hardships faced especially by women and children, who comprise 80 per cent of the total deportees/returnees. Based on the study, shelter, lack of employment opportunities, lack of access to credit and land, and lack of livestock, food, and education were highlighted as the major problems faced by the group. The study also pointed out the challenges in providing assistance to deportees. These included the large number of deportees/returnees, the fact that they are mostly unskilled and are scattered all over the region, and constraints of land distribution. Taking these into consideration, the study recommended a comprehensive intervention, including food aid as a short-term strategy. A number of long-term interventions are also highlighted to ensure self-sufficiency among the deportees. These included making training opportunities available, creating rural and semi-rural employment alternatives, and continuing to clear landmines ( Women’s Association of Tigray 2002 ).

There is a great need for the training of deportees for increased urban employment opportunities as well as access to affordable housing and other basic services. These needs were also recognized in a Review Workshop held in Mekelle on 3–4 April 2002, focusing on the status of the ERP and the Emergency Demobilization and Re-integration Program. The workshop highlighted various needs of deportees, and was attended by senior government officials and representatives of UN country teams from bodies including:

MoFED

Ethiopian Mine Action Office (EMAO)

UNICEF

United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

World Health Organization (WHO)

WFP

United Nations Emergency Unit for Ethiopia (UN-EUE)

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

World Bank

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)

United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

ERP’s targets include the rehabilitation and reconstruction of 80 schools, 26 health facilities, 5 veterinary clinics, 26 animal health posts, 127 medium and deep wells, 15 springs, and 1 warehouse; and to supply furniture and equipment for these facilities and replace a 130-km water pipeline and a water tanker destroyed as a result of the border conflict ( The Performance of Rehabilitation Activities and Challenges April 2002 ).

The infrastructure-building part of the program mainly focused on the reconstruction and rehabilitation of these destroyed and damaged socio-economic infrastructures to ensure the resumption of basic services. During the first year, most of the activities conducted were related to preliminary works such as preconstruction and procurement of equipment and services. Implementation of some of the programs has now begun. However, challenges in fund reallocation, absence of coordination with other organizations and delayed de-mining activities continue to delay overall implementation of the program. The Ethiopian Road Authority (ERA) and the Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCO) also played an important role in implementing part of the program.

The main objective of the HIV/AIDS part of the ERP is to reduce HIV/AIDS infection and its spread in the seven affected woredas along the border. The program targets IDPs, deportees, demobilized soldiers, commercial sex-workers, and other vulnerable groups of the society. Sector bureaus including health, education, trade industry, transport, culture, and information, along with the army, kebele (Amharic word for a small district) AIDS committees, NGOs, and private sectors are all involved in the implementation of the program.

Ethiopia has a major problem with landmine/UXO contamination resulting from the number of conflicts dating back to the Italian occupation. Estimations of the total number of landmines laid in the country vary greatly. According to US government estimates, about twenty-one different types of landmines have been found in the country, and the number of UXO pieces is said to be between half a million to 1 million, most of which are found in the northern part of the country ( Deisser 1999 ). Ethiopia is also known as the first country to have borrowed money to undertake de-mining activities.

In February 2001, GFDRE established a civilian de-mining office, EMAO, to deactivate explosives, educate the public and prevent injuries and deaths resulting from mines. The Emergency Recovery Program Management Unit, in close collaboration with EMAO, implements the World Bank-supported de-mining project. The project mainly focuses on building national capacity through technical training and provision of required equipment. Among the major interventions in this sector is the training of de-miners by the US Department of State, which granted a total of US$1.6 million towards the training program. Close to 200 combatant engineers were selected and trained in humanitarian de-mining, upon their release from the Ministry of National Defense. The training was conducted in two phases by an American organization called RONCO. Advanced training as well as facilitation of deployment was later provided by EMAO. EMAO was also engaged in mapping out mine-infested areas based on the National Landmine Impact Survey, analyzing the type of mines and the general socio-economic conditions of the areas. The Rehabilitation and Development Organization (RaDO), in close collaboration with UNICEF and UNDP, has also been engaged in sensitization and mine-awareness through Mine Risk Education activities. UNDP’s ‘Support to the Ethiopian Mine Action Program’ also compliments the effort by following up on international technical assistance for quality assurance and management training.

As was the case for the infrastructure-rebuilding part of ERP, the road-construction program also experienced some difficulties. The program is implemented in close collaboration with ERA and EEPCO. Most of the activities undertaken under this component were mainly preparatory works on roads and electric power sub-components that were implemented during the first years of the program, conducted through the ERA and EEPCO at the federal level.

USAID-funded Border Development Program (BDP)

The BDP focused on two of the highly affected woredas in eastern Tigray—Irob and Gulomekeda—and complemented the ERP. It was implemented by three international NGOs, namely Catholic Relief Services (CRS), Cooperazione Internazionale (COOPI), and Agricultural Cooperative Development International and Volunteers in Overseas Cooperative Assistance (ACDI/VOCA), along with REST.

The first phase of the program, valued at US$4.6 million, focused on house construction, distribution of household utensils, construction of destroyed/damaged socio-economic infrastructures, and awareness-raising on landmines and HIV/AIDS. Implementation of the second phase of the program, which focuses on confidence-building to facilitate the commencement of cross-border trade, is awaiting the final border demarcation.

Other post-war rehabilitation programs

In September 2000, the United Nations Security Council authorized the deployment of 4,200 troops for UNMEE. The troops are responsible for ensuring adherence of both parties to their security commitments, monitoring the redeployment of troops from each side, providing technical assistance on mine action, and monitoring the Temporary Security Zone (TSZ). UNMEE also coordinates with the humanitarian and human rights work of other organizations in the TSZ and adjacent areas.

According to UN–EUE (in August 2003), an estimated 3,000 IDP families/15,000 persons that are categorized as being displaced as a result of the conflict reside in temporary shelters in Addis Ababa. The group fled from the Eritrean seaport of Assab during the war.

Challenges in post-war development programs

Although the signing of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement (June 2000) and the Algiers Agreement (December 2000) has permitted the commencement of rehabilitation and recovery programs in conflict-affected areas, there is still much that needs to be done. Uncertainty with regards to the border demarcation process has suspended the implementation of many programs.

Challenges of post-war rehabilitation programs include:

Coordination and integration of rehabilitation programs

Program standards

Geographic spread

Working with established local frameworks and with local institutions.

Other challenges include the need to design appropriate interventions for the various groups affected by the war (the displaced, returnees, FDs, and demobilized soldiers), the need to include programs that address issues of psychological trauma among the most directly affected people in the border areas, and resumption of cross-border trade with Eritrea, which had served as a major source of income. The slow progress on mine-clearing as well as the delay in the border demarcation process has created a sense of insecurity, preventing people from resettling and investing in the border areas.

Other conflict-induced displacements

In addition to the Ethio-Eritrean war, ethnic-based conflicts in other parts of the country have also resulted in the displacement of people. In the Yeki district of SNNPR, ethnic clashes over the inclusion of the Shekicho zone into the Gambella region had resulted in the death of about 800 people, the displacement of 5,800, and destruction of over 2,000 homes in 2002. Another ethnic conflict in the Bench and Maji zones of the same region had resulted in the displacement of over 1,000 Dizzi people ( Global IDP Project 2003 ).

Ethnic clashes between the Anuak and Nuer tribes in the Gambella region are common. However, the level has escalated recently, and in 2003 resulted in massive displacement of over 10,000 Anuak. With the decentralization of power to regional administrations in 1991, Gambella became an autonomous region, and tension between the two tribes rose as the struggle for power intensified. The Nuer, who represent 40 per cent of the population (according to the 1994 census) argue that education should be conducted in the Nuer language. The Anuak (believed to account for 27 per cent of the population), on the other hand, contest the 1994 census, arguing that the number of Nuers in the area was overestimated due the inflow of Sudanese Nuer over the border. They also contend that the number of Anuaks was underestimated, as most of their villages were inaccessible during the census.

With increasing population growth and recurrent drought (especially since the drought of 2002), conflict over natural resources has also increased in the region. Easy access to guns, mainly from Sudan, has made the conflicts more violent, resulting in the death as well as the displacement of many people. The conflict has also affected refugee camps in the region.

Websites:
US Committee for Refugees World Refugee Survey 2003: Ethiopia - http://www.refugees.org/world/countryrpt/africa/2003/ethiopia.cfm
Global IDP Project Profile of Internal Displacement: Ethiopia - http://www.db.idpproject.org/Sites/IdpProjectDb/idpSurvey.nsf/wCountries/Ethiopia/$file/Ethiopia+-August+2003.pdf
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia (UN OCHA-EUE) - http://www.db.idpproject.org/Sites/idpSurvey.nsf/wViewCountries/4D24E07E5E86371BC1256D7B004E0691/$file/UN+EUE+IDP+figures+Ethiopia+1Aug03.pdf

Disaster-induced displacement

Looking at statistics on disasters in Ethiopia, drought and famine account for the majority of the incidents. Ethiopia’s disaster-induced displacement occurs in the form of unassisted migration, which is in most cases temporary. In times of stress, people affected by drought tend to migrate to places that offer employment opportunities or places where they have relatives. Much of this trend can be generalized as a movement from the highlands (highly populated and environmentally degraded) to the lowlands, which offer more diverse livelihoods. As the level of stress increases, people (usually women, children, and the elderly) migrate to urban areas while the able-bodied men migrate farther to the surplus-growing areas of western and southern Ethiopia such as Humera, Arsi, Gojam, and Wellega ( Hammond 2000 ). However, in some cases, especially during times of extreme deprivation, people also tend to migrate to neighbouring countries and to seek assistance there. In the case of pastoral communities, particularly in the Afar and Somali regions, pastoralists during times of stress tend to move in search of grazing land and water for their herds. In some cases, such movements result in conflict.

Table 2 has been extracted from a USAID Contingency Response Plan for the 2000 drought emergency in Ethiopia, as it gives a very good sample of migration trends in the country.

Table 2: Partial sample of target destinations of stress migration
Target destination(s) Area(s) of origin
Gode Rural parts of Gode zone and other parts of southern and southwestern Somali region; also from southern Somalia
Yabello, Negelle Rural pastoralists from Borena zone
Jinka Rural pastoralists and agro-pastoralists from South Omo
Sodo, Konso Rural agro-pastoralists from North Omo
Jijiga, Dire Dawa Rural pastoralists from eastern parts of Somalia region, East Haraghe
Kombolcha, Dessie, Weldiya Rural farmers from North and South Wello
Mekelle, Maichew Rural farmers from Tigray
Gondar Rural farmers from isolated areas of West and Central Tigray, North and South Gondar
Addis Ababa Rural dwellers from all over the country

USAID Contingency Response Plan 2000

Drought in Ethiopia is a recurrent event and is one of the major contributing factors to the country’s state of food insecurity. As part of its overall food security strategy, the GFDRE in 2003 launched a voluntary resettlement program, to resettle a total of 2.2 million food-insecure people over a three-year period. Approximately 150,000 people were resettled by the second half of 2003, and an additional 170,000 people are said to have been resettled in 2004, bringing the total number to 320,000 people ( UNOCHA 2004 ). The resettlement program as it currently stands is conducted on a voluntary basis. However, in the mid-1980s, the Derg carried out a similar campaign, which quickly became forced. Between 1984 and 1986, an estimated 600,000 people were relocated. Conditions in resettlement areas were appalling, and thousands of deaths were reported. It is important to bear in mind that the current program has a great potential to become involuntary. As it currently stands, maximum planning figures released by the federal government have a tendency to be interpreted by regional, zonal, and woreda administrators as quotas to be met. Initiation propaganda thus tends to be overly ambitious, painting rosier pictures than actually exist at the resettlement sites and making false promises to lure people to volunteer ( Hammond and Dessalegn 2003 ). The disparity between expectations and actual situations at the sites has resulted in increased numbers of returnees.

At present, settlers have the right to return to their place of origin and receive the benefits that they were previously entitled to including their land and other assets.

The increase in the number of returnees has in turn contributed to a reduced number of volunteers, requiring more work to promote the program, in order to convince people to resettle. This tendency, if unchecked, could easily result in involuntary resettlement and as such should be looked at carefully.

Development-induced displacement

Development-induced displacement occurs mainly due to construction of large development projects such as dams, buildings, or major roads. Development programs of such magnitude are not common in Ethiopia. The few major development programs in the country are undertaken by the government, and as such, accessing information on their negative implications is very difficult. For instance, it is common knowledge that the nearly finished 47-km ‘ring road’ that follows the outskirts of Addis Ababa has resulted in the displacement of many families. However, information on the number of people displaced, compensation packages offered, etc., is very difficult to access. It is generally believed that the construction has destroyed social networks by removing people from their means of livelihood. This is especially true for those in the low-income strata whose livelihood depended on petty trading and other small income-generation schemes. Relocation in their case has meant losing their developed demand for their products.

Refugee situations in Ethiopia

Refugee situations in Ethiopia

Refugee influxes in Ethiopia are primarily results of ongoing political and civil unrest as well as recurring natural disasters in neighbouring countries. Ethiopia hosts a large population of refugees from many African countries including Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea, Rwanda, Burundi, Angola, Liberia, Djibouti, Uganda, South Africa, and Yemen. However, refugees from Somalia, Sudan, and Eritrea make up the majority. Currently there are a total of nine refugee camps located in the east, west, and northern parts of the country. Urban refugees are also found in major towns, especially Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. Information on the status of urban refugees is not readily available as most depend on remittances and are not registered as refugees with concerned organizations. Those who do register with UNHCR are encouraged to join refugee camps and benefit from general assistance packages provided there. Jesuit Refugee Services (JRS) is the only organization in Addis Ababa that provides assistance including language courses, library facilities, day-care services, and computer literacy programs to build urban refugees’ self-confidence and promote self-reliance.

The main objectives of refugee operations in Ethiopia are:

Protection and provision of care and maintenance assistance

Promotion of voluntary repatriation of Somali refugees

Recovery programs including school feeding and environment-focused food-for-work programs ( Joint Food Assessment Mission 2001 ).

UNHCR is the main office in charge of coordination of assistance in the various camps. The Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (ARRA), an institution established by the Ethiopian government and part of the Ministry of Home Affairs, is the main implementing partner of UNHCR. ARRA is in charge of food distribution, security issues in the camps, and other programs on health, education, etc.

Through its Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation Project number 6180 (operational since 1 April 2000), WFP provides general food rations to refugees. Supplementary and blanket-feeding programs are also provided on a needs basis, as determined through nutritional surveillance. In cases where most children below the age of five range between 70–80 per cent weight for height, or even in worst cases where they fall below 70 per cent, they are provided with supplemental feeding or admitted to the wet- or therapeutic-feeding program.

Blanket-feeding programs (which include take-home rations) are mainly operational in centres such as Sherkole and Bonga where under-nutrition is highly evident among the majority of children under five. WFP also undertakes a school feeding program in the Sudanese camps, providing FAMIX (a porridge-like, high protein food that provides essential nutrition for children and young mothers) at break times. It is reported that with the introduction of this program, attendance has reached near-perfect with many dropouts returning to class ( Joint Food Assessment Mission 2001 ). Besides the regular food distribution program, WFP also provides a one-time food package prior to repatriation. This is mainly true in the case of the Somali refugee camps.

As the Somali camps are located in semi-arid areas, the added pressure on the already fragile ecosystem has resulted in extensive degradation of surrounding natural resources. WFP, in collaboration with local governments, implements Food for Work programs in the Somali camps that focus on natural resource management such as tree planting; measures to control erosion, introducing energy-saving stoves; etc. The program also involves local communities to ensure continuity and sustainability of efforts made.

Somali refugee camps (eastern camps)

Somali refugees began arriving in Ethiopia following the Ogaden war of 1977–8 and again after the fall of the Siyad Barre government in Somalia in 1991 ( Joint Food Assessment Mission 2001 ). The refugees mainly settled amongst their clan members in Ethiopia–Somali land since clan territories span the border between Ethiopia and Somalia.

Since 1997, the eastern programs have mainly focused on repatriation. So far six Somali refugee camps – Hartishiek B, Teferi Ber, Darwonaji, Daror, Rabasso, and Camaboker have been closed with the successful repatriation of 222,033 people ( UNHCR and WFP Collaboration Bulletin 2003 ). Currently, only three camps remain operational, namely Hartishek, Kebrebeyah, and Aisha.

As part of a repatriation package, refugees receive a one-time food package of 150 kg of wheat, 10 kg of pulses, and 5 l of oil per person.

Remittance plays a major role in the lives of refugees in these camps. Prior to the ban of livestock imports from Horn of Africa countries imposed in 1997 by Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries, the sale of livestock had served as a reliable source of income. However, with the continued ban, and devaluation of Somali and Somaliland shillings, remittance has taken the lead in contributing to refugees’ income.

It is believed that there are Ethiopians in these refugee centers. Many Ethiopian ethnic Somalis move into the camp due to recurrent drought and insecurity. This is especially true for Ethiopian–Somali returnees who were repatriated between 1991–3. Due to very limited economic opportunities in the area, the returnees usually join the camps to get access to food and other assistance ( Ambroso 2002 ).

Sudanese refugee camps (western camps)

Most of the Sudanese refugees arrived in Ethiopia in the early 1980s. New arrivals continue to flow into the country due to continued conflict in their country. The refugee population in Ethiopia reached its peak of more than 300,000 in 1991. The number has now reduced substantially, and currently stands at 90,806 (WFP Monthly Food Requirements March 2004). Pugnido is the largest camp, hosting about 35 per cent of current Sudanese refugees (see Table 3). In 2002, ethnic clashes within the camps resulted in the death and displacement of many refugees. Clashes between the Anuak and Nuer tribes as well as other clashes between the northern and southern Sudanese have become common in the Pugnido, Bonga, and Sherkole camps (see Conflict-induced displacement for additional insight on causes and extent of the conflict).

Table 3: Summary of refugee state of affairs in the country
Geographic location of camps Refugee camps (Number of refugees)

Number of refugees changes very often. The number presented in the table is based on WFP’s monthly food distribution requirements prepared on 3 March 2004.

Remark
Western camps

There are currently security concerns in the Pugnido and Dimma camps (see Conflict-induced displacement ).

(Sudanese refugees)

- Bonga (17,939)

- Pugnido (31,589)

- Sherkole (18,887)

- Yarenja (4,347)

- Dimma (18,644)

- Mainly conflict-induced but also economic reasons

- Numbers of refugees in these sites (with the exception of Pugnido) are expected to increase due to continued unrest in Sudan

- Third-country resettlement as well as access to resources encouraged

Eastern camps (Somali refugees)

- Hartisheik (2,325)

- Kebrebeyah (11,629)

- Aisha (13,978)

- Remittance is a major source of income for refugees in these camps
Northern camps (Eritrean/Kunama refugees) Walia Nhibi (Temporary site) (6,765)

- Near the contested areas of Shiraro/Bademe, numbers expected to increase due to forced conscription, discrimination, or to join family members () Joint Food Assessment Mission 2001

- Donors are exploring possibilities with the Ethiopian government to allow refugees access to more resources such as land to ensure long-term security WFP Monthly Food Requirements, March 2004

Agriculture, petty trading, and remittance play a major role in making up the livelihood of refugees in these camps. Although selected refugees have benefited from the seeds and farming tools distributed by UNHCR and ARRA, lack of arable land has limited refugees’ opportunities to become self-reliant.

Eritrean refugee camp (northern camp)

There are over 6,700 Eritrean refuges in the northern camp. These refugees consist of ethnic Kunamas who fled the country in May 2000 and an increasing number who continue to flow to Ethiopia following the Ethio-Eritrean war in 1998.

With very limited access to land and livestock, refugees have been forced to survive on meagre resources. Land is especially a problem in this area as the camp is located near the town of Shiraro, which is very close to the border with Eritrea. As is the case with other camps, refugees receive food and other assistance through WFP, ARRA and UNHCR.

Ethiopian refugees

According to the World Refugee Survey, produced by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI), more than 20,000 Ethiopians were refugees or asylum-seekers at the end of 2002. These included more than 10,000 in Kenya, some 2,000 in Djibouti, more than 1,000 in Yemen, and an estimated 6,000 in Europe and the USA. It is also reported that approximately 10,000 Ethiopians lived in refugee-like circumstances in Sudan. The majority of refuges left the country during the Derg regime. Upon the establishment of the new government in 1991, more than 800,000 Ethiopian refugees were repatriated from Djibouti, Sudan, Kenya, Somalia, and other countries. During 2001 alone, more than 10,000 pre-1999 Ethiopian refugees were repatriated from Sudan to the north-western part of the country.

Website:
US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, World Refugee Survey: 2003 Country Report - http://www.refugees.org/article.aspx?id=1406

Trafficking of young girls and women

Trafficking of young girls and women

As is the case with most developing countries, the rate of population growth in Ethiopia outstrips the rate of economic growth, resulting in an increased level of unemployment. This coupled with increased demand for cheap labor in developed countries has pushed many young men and women to leave the country in search of employment. According to the Ethiopian Government’s Security Immigration and Refugee Affairs Authority, the number of migrant workers leaving the country increased from an average of 23 per month in 1996 to 410 per month in 1999 ( Belayneh 2003 ). Illegal migration in Ethiopia mainly focuses on the trafficking of young women to Middle-Eastern countries.

Women have especially become vulnerable to trafficking as a result of their continued exploitation in the country along with their limited access to education and employment opportunities. Increasing social disintegration of families due to war and poverty has also increased women’s traditional burden of taking care of their families including their parents and siblings. This in turn has created an added burden to generate income. Inherently, the types of job opportunities offered in the Middle East—predominately domestic helpers and sex workers—also reinforces the gender bias.

Trafficking as defined by the UN protocol is: ‘The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by the threat or use of force, by abduction, fraud, deception, coercion or the abuse of power or by the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation’ ( UNCJIN 2000 ). In the case of Ethiopia, trafficking mostly takes the form of transporting migrants by fraud, deception and different forms of coercion. In this regard, many young girls have become victims of trafficking by illegal agents who claim to have established contacts with employers. According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), 72 per cent of the Ethiopian surveyed migrants used the services of both illegal and legal employment agents for the process of migration. Of these, 60 per cent used illegal agents, 20 per cent used legal agents, and 20 per cent did not know the status of the agents they used ( Messele 2003 ).

Women’s vulnerability has not been limited to trafficking alone but also to violence and violation of their rights upon arrival in the country of destination. It has now become common practice for women migrants to be asked or forced to perform other duties outside of the contract, such as prostitution. Lured by their desire to send remittances to their families and the empty promises of their traffickers, many young migrants now face various forms of persecution in the hands of their ‘owners’. Having given up their freedom of movement, they have become vulnerable to physical as well as mental torture. It is reported that many sponsors keep employees’ travel documents as a means of guaranteeing continued service ( Rifkallal 2003 ).

Weakness in the Ethiopian legal structure has further exposed women to exploitation. The Ethiopian Penal Code defines trafficking in ‘women, infants and young persons’ narrowly without considering other forms of trafficking. According to Article 605 of the Penal Code, the term trafficker refers to a person who transports women, infants and young people out of the country illegally by enticing them or otherwise inducing them to engage in prostitution. Labor trafficking, which does not fall under the ‘prostitution’ category, is thus not given due attention and cannot be used to bring illegal traffickers of labor to justice. However, new policies are being formulated and the government of Ethiopia is now engaging in various endeavors to protect the rights of its citizens in the Diaspora. In this regard, the Private Employment Agency Proclamation No. 104/1998 ( Hagos 2003 ) was a step forward. On the basis of this proclamation, Ethiopians can only migrate in search of employment opportunities through legal employment agencies or by direct employment contracts with employers ( Hagos 2003 ). The Ethiopian government through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs also created the General Directorate in charge of Ethiopian Expatriates Affairs in January 2002. Through this body, Ethiopian migrants are encouraged to return, participate in national affairs, mobilize the Ethiopian community abroad, conduct researches, etc. However, there is more work that needs to be done to ensure the protection of the rights of migrants.

Another major obstacle to monitoring the well-being of the trafficked women is their change in identity. Almost all the women migrants to Middle-Eastern countries with Christian names tend to change their names to Muslim names to facilitate the visa process. However, this poses a great challenge for the Ethiopian government to trace the migrants as they have two identities (the names they are known by in Ethiopia and the names they are known by in the destination country).

Though having bilateral agreements is the best way of ensuring the protection of migrants, they are not easy to secure, mainly due to the unbalanced national interest of the sending and receiving countries. However, efforts are being made at both ends. An Ethiopian embassy has now been established in most of these countries, and the Ethiopian community is also trying to cooperate and make their voices heard. Different governmental and non-governmental organizations using schools and other social forums as entry points are currently undertaking awareness-raising campaigns to make sufficient information available to potential migrants and thus minimize their risks.

Website:
UNCJIN – Protocol to Prevent Supress and Punish Trafficking 2000 - http://www.uncjin.org/Documents/Conventions/dcatoc/final_documents_2/convention_%20traff_eng.pdf

Other resources

Other resources

Major organizations in Ethiopia

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) - http://www.uneca.org/

OAU - http://www.itcilo.it/english/actrav/telearn/global/ilo/law/oau.htm

UNHCR - http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home

UNDP - http://www.undp.org/

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) - http://www.unfpa.org/profile/ethiopia.cfm?Section=2

The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) - http://www.unaids.org/en/geographical+area/by+country/ethiopia.asp

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - http://erc.unesco.org/cp/cp.asp?country=ET&language=E

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) - http://www.unido.org/geodoc.cfm?cc=ETH

WHO - http://www.who.int/country/eth/en/

FAO - http://www.fao.org/

UN-EUE - http://www.telecom.net.et/~undp-eue/latest.htm

USAID - http://www.usaidethiopia.org/

World Bank - http://www.worldbank.org/afr/et/

IMF - http://www.imf.org/external/country/ETH/index.htm

International Labour Organization (ILO) - http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/afpro/abidjan/about/pres2.htm

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) - http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/CIDAWEB/webcountry.nsf/VLUDocEn/Ethiopia-Overview

UNMEE - http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/unmee/

ICRC - http://www.icrc.org/Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/ethiopia?OpenDocument

IOM - http://www.iom.int/#

WFP - http://www.wfp.org/country_brief/index.asp?region=2

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) - http://ochaonline.un.org/

UNICEF - http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/ethiopia.html

Department for International Development (DFID) - http://www.dfid.gov.uk/

CARE - http://www.careinternational.org.uk/cares_work/where/ethiopia/

Save the Children UK - http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/scuk/jsp/wherewework/country.jsp?ukww=ww&section=ectrlafrica&subsection=ethiopia

Save the Children USA - http://www.savethechildren.org/countries/africa/ethiopia.asp

OXFAM - http://www.oxfam.org.uk/what_we_do/where_we_work/ethiopia/index.htm

CRS - http://www.catholicrelief.org/our_work/where_we_work/overseas/africa/ethiopia/index.cfm

GOAL Ireland - http://www.goal.ie/atwork/ethiopia.shtml

CONCERN - http://www.concern.net/overseas_countryprofile.php

World Vision Ethiopia (WVE) - http://www.devinet.org/wve/

AFRICARE - http://www.childsurvival.com/projects/projectDetail.cfm?proj_ID=346

Food for the Hungry International (FHI) - http://www.fhi.net/countries/countries.php3?countryid=10

ACDI/VOCA - http://www.acdivoca.org/acdivoca/acdiweb2.nsf/wherewework/ethiopia?opendocument

Christian Aid - http://www.christian-aid.org.uk/world/where/eagl/ethiopp.htm

Plan International - http://www.plan.org.au/contents/ourwork/pc.asp#Ethiopia

Pathfinder International - http://www.pathfind.org/site/PageServer?pagename=Programs_Africa_Ethiopia

Christian Relief and Development Association (CRDA) - http://www.crdaethiopia.org

Other electronic resources

Addis Tribune - http://www.addistribune.com/Archives/2003/06/13-06-03/Skulls.htm

CIA: The World Fact Book - http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/et.html

Ethiopia AIDS Resource Center - http://www.etharc.org

Global IDP Project. Profile of International Displacement: Ethiopia (July 2003) - http://www.db.idpproject.org/Sites/idpSurvey.nsf/wCountries/Ethiopia

JRS - http://www.jrsafricaeducation.org/projects/projectsFRM.html

Links to Ethiopian government organization sites - http://www.waltainfo.com/Links/links_gov.htm

US State Department: World Refugee Survey - http://www.unhcr.org/pubs/fdrs/ga2002/eth.pdf

US Department of State: Human Rights Issues - http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2859.htm

US Committee for Refugees: Information by Country - http://www.refugees.org/world/countryrpt/africa/2003/ethiopia.cfm

Non-electronic resources and bibliography

Ambroso, Guido. ‘Pastoral society and transnational refugees: Population movements in Somaliland and eastern Ethiopia 1998–2000’,New Issues in Refugee ResearchNew Issues in Refugee Research. Working Paper No. 65. Brussles: UNHCR, August 2002.
Belayneh, Tsehay.Research and Communication Strategy Definition. Be Informed: Countering Trafficking Through InformationResearch and Communication Strategy Definition. Be Informed: Countering Trafficking Through Information. Geneva: IOM, March 2003.
Buffoni Laura and Tadesse Ehetemariam, Report on the Joint UNICEF/Women's Association of Tigray Study of Ethiopian Deportees/Returnees from Eritrea Living in Tigray, 31 December 2001.
Deisser, Emmanuel.Reducing the Landmine/Unexploded Ordnance Threat to Civilians in Ethiopia: A Strategy for Coordinated Humanitarian ActionReducing the Landmine/Unexploded Ordnance Threat to Civilians in Ethiopia: A Strategy for Coordinated Humanitarian Action. Consultant to the United Nations Country Team in Ethiopia, October 1999.
Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission,Assistance Requirements in 2000 for Internally Displaced PeopleAssistance Requirements in 2000 for Internally Displaced People, January 2000.
Hagos, Teolde. ‘National Policies, Practices, Measures and Legislations, including private Employment Agency Proclamation No. 104/1998’ inReport of the Capacity Building Workshop on Labor Migration and Trafficking in Persons in EthiopiaReport of the Capacity Building Workshop on Labor Migration and Trafficking in Persons in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: IOM, 2003.
Hammond, Laura.Economic Impacts of the Ethiopian/Eritrea Conflict: A review of available data and proposed scope of workEconomic Impacts of the Ethiopian/Eritrea Conflict: A review of available data and proposed scope of work. Submitted to USAID, July 2001.
——.USAID Contingency Response PlanUSAID Contingency Response Plan, March 2000.
—— and Dessalegn, Bezaiet.Safara: An Assessment of Current and Future Voluntary Resettlement in EthiopiaSafara: An Assessment of Current and Future Voluntary Resettlement in Ethiopia. A report submitted to USAID/Ethiopia, September 2003.
Joint Food Assessment Mission.ARRA, UNHCR, WFPARRA, UNHCR, WFP, August 2001.
Messele, Rakeb. ‘Overview of Trafficking in Ethiopia: Findings of Survey Report’ inReport of the Capacity Building Workshop on Labor Migration and Trafficking in Persons in EthiopiaReport of the Capacity Building Workshop on Labor Migration and Trafficking in Persons in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: IOM, October 2003.
Regional State of Tigray,Contingency Plan to Meet the Humanitarian Needs of Displaced PeopleContingency Plan to Meet the Humanitarian Needs of Displaced People, December 1998.
Regional State of Tigray,Emergency Recovery Program. Summary Report of the Study Carried out to Plan the Reconstruction of the Town of Zalambessa and the Rehabilitation of its ResidentsEmergency Recovery Program. Summary Report of the Study Carried out to Plan the Reconstruction of the Town of Zalambessa and the Rehabilitation of its Residents. Mekelle, Tigray, April 2002.
Report on the Post-War Recovery Programs and Activities in Tigray Regional State, Office of Rehabilitation and Social Affairs (ORSA), September 2002.
Rifkallal, Salim. ‘Migrant Workers in Lebanon’ inReport of the Capacity Building Workshop on Labor Migration and Trafficking in Persons in EthiopiaReport of the Capacity Building Workshop on Labor Migration and Trafficking in Persons in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: IOM, October 2003.
Second Annual Report on the Ethiopian Economy. Volume II. Ethiopian Economic Association, 2000/2001.
Sethi, Meera. ‘Overview of Trafficking in Ethiopia’ inReport of the Capacity Building Workshop on Labor Migration and Trafficking in Persons in EthiopiaReport of the Capacity Building Workshop on Labor Migration and Trafficking in Persons in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: IOM, October 2003.
Statistical Abstract. Addis Ababa: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Central Statistical Authority, 2002.
Strinzos, Maria. ‘Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) In Post War Recovery: Opportunities and Challenges’. Paper presented at the Review Workshop on the Tigray Emergency Recovery Program. Mekelle, Tigray: Relief Society of Tigray, April 2002.
‘The Performance of Rehabilitation Activities and Challenges Encountered Under the ERP: A paper presented at the review workshop of rehabilitation program of Tigray Region’. Ethiopia: World Bank, 3–4 April 2002.
UN Country Team.Relief Action Plan for War Affected Civilian Populations in Tigray and Afar Regions of Ethiopia,Relief Action Plan for War Affected Civilian Populations in Tigray and Afar Regions of Ethiopia, 1 March 1999.
——.Updated Appeal for Rehabilitation and Recovery Programmes for Internally Displaced PersonsUpdated Appeal for Rehabilitation and Recovery Programmes for Internally Displaced Persons, 22 August 2000.
——.Humanitarian Activities and reconciliation in the NorthHumanitarian Activities and reconciliation in the North, February 2002.
UNOCHA.Humanitarian Issues and Recommended Actions from Multi-Stakeholder Field AssessmentHumanitarian Issues and Recommended Actions from Multi-Stakeholder Field Assessment, March 2004.
UNHCR and WFP Collaboration Bulletin, 22 May 2003.
UNICEF Report on Study of Ethiopian Deportees/Returnees from Eritrea Living in Tigray. Addis Ababa, December 2001.
Women’s Association of Tigray.A summary of finding and recommendations on the study of Ethiopian deportees/returnees from Eritrea living in Tigray, September–November 2001A summary of finding and recommendations on the study of Ethiopian deportees/returnees from Eritrea living in Tigray, September–November 2001. Project Office, March 2002.
Last updated Aug 17, 2011